FLIGHT CONTROLS

If there is any conflicting information, your FCOM shall be the overriding reference.

Q1. Which of the spoiler surfaces are the speed brake surfaces?

A1. Spoiler Surfaces 2,3 and 4 are the Speed Brake Surfaces.

Q2. If a/c is dispatched with SEC1 inoperative {under MEL}, then which of the flight control surfaces are not available for you in flight?

A2. Spoilers 3 and 4 would not be available.

Q3. Which of the flight controls are lost, if ELAC 1+2 are lost?

A3. Both Ailerons are lost and the THS Motor 1 is lost.

Q4. Which of the flight control surfaces are lost, if G + Y are lost?

A4. The following are lost :-

(1) Yaw Damper

(2) Stabilizer

(3) Spoiler 1+2+4+5

(4) Flaps

Q5. Which of the Flt/controls are lost, if FAC 1+2 are lost?

A5. With FAC 1+2 loss, the Rudder travel limit system, Rudder Trim Control and Yaw Damper are lost.

Q6. Do you agree that there is no flight control available if you lose all the three hydraulics?

A6. Yes.

Q7. What happens to the extended speed brakes when CONFIG FULL is selected?

A7. The Speed brakes retract automatically.

Q8. What are the conditions in which Speed Brakes get retracted automatically?

A8. The following are the conditions in which Speed Brakes get retracted automatically :-

(1) SEC 1 and 3 both have faults

(2) An Elevator(L or R) has a fault (only spoilers 3 and 4 are inhibited)

(3) Angle of Attack protection is active

(4) Flaps are in configuration Full

(5) Thrust levers above MCT position

(6) Alpha Floor Activation

Q9. What happens to the symmetric surface on the other wing, when a speed brake surface (on one wing) fails?

A9. The symmetric surface on the other wing is inhibited.

Q10. When does SPD BRK memo turn amber?

A10. The SPD BRK memo turns Amber in the following conditions:-

(1) When the speed brakes are extended in Flight Phases 2, 3, 4, and 5, the “SPEED BRK”

memo flashes in amber.

(2) When the speedbrakes are extended in Flight Phases 6 and 7, the “SPEED BRK” memo

appears in green. It flashes in amber, after 50 s, if at least one engine is above idle

Q11. What is the new procedure if there is F/CTL SPOILER FAULT and one spoiler is indicated deflected in amber?

A11. AIRBUS recommendations assume that if the F/CTL SPLR FAULT ECAM caution triggers, along with at least one amber deflected spoiler arrow displayed on the F/CTL S/D page, the spoiler is supposed to be fully deflected. The following is the procedure :-

AP…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………OFF

Depending on the failed spoiler position, the AP may not have enough authority to counteract the roll induced by spoiler runaway.

SPEED………………………………………………………………………………………………….GDOT+10

Whenever possible, target green dot speed +10 kt to minimize fuel consumption. However, if buffet is encountered at GDOT speed +10 kt, increase speed to fly out of buffet condition.

CRUISE ALTITUDE……………………………………………………………..AS REQUIRED

Current Flight Level (FL) may not be maintained due to increased drag. Maintain a cruise FL as high as possible.

FUEL CONSUMPTION INCREASED

FMS FUEL PRED……………………………………………………………………DISREGARD

FUEL CONSUMPTION……………………………………………………………..DETERMINE

DIVERSION…………………………………………………………………………..CONSIDER

APPR PROC

In clean configuration, if VLS is above VFENEXT, the flight crew should deselect A/THR, decelerate to VFENEXT, and select CONF 1 when below VFENEXT. When established at CONF 1, the flight crew can reengage the A/THR and use managed speed again.

FOR LDG………………………………………………………………………………USE FLAP 3

GPWS LDG FLAP 3……………………………………………………………………………. ON

LANDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT………………………………………. PERFORM

Q12. What are the logic conditions for ground spoiler extension to occur during RTO?

A12. The following are the logic conditions for Ground Spoiler extension to occur during RTO :-

(1) If the ground spoilers are armed and the speed exceeds 72 kt, the ground spoilers

will automatically extend as soon as both thrust levers are reset to idle.

(2) If the ground spoilers are not armed and the speed exceeds 72 kt, the ground

spoilers will automatically extend as soon as reverse is selected on one engine (the

other thrust lever remains at idle).

Q13. What are the logic conditions for full ground spoiler extension to occur during landing?

A13. The following are the logic conditions for Ground Spoiler extension to occur during landing :-

(1) If the ground spoilers are armed and all thrust levers are at idle, the ground spoilers

will automatically extend as soon as both main landing gears have touched down.

(2) If the ground spoilers are not armed and both main landing gears have touched

down, the ground spoilers will automatically extend as soon as reverse is selected

on one engine (the other thrust lever remains at idle).

Q14. Partial ground spoiler extension can also occur during landing. What are the conditions?

A14. The ground spoilers partially extend (10 °) when reverse is selected on at least one engine (other engine at idle), and one main landing gear strut is compressed. This partial extension, by decreasing the lift, eases the compression of the second main landing gear strut, and consequently leads to full ground spoiler extension.

Q15. When will extension of ground spoilers take place, if ground spoilers were not armed before landing?

A15. If the ground spoilers are not armed and both main landing gears have touched down, the ground spoilers will automatically extend as soon as reverse is selected on one engine (the other thrust lever remains at idle).

Q16. How to retract the extended spoilers?

A16. The system automatically retracts the spoilers to their zero position, if it detects a fault or loses

electrical control.

Q17. Is it true that the Rudder deflection is a function of speed?

A17. Yes.

Q18. Name the protections available in Normal Law?

A18. The normal law protects the aircraft throughout the flight envelope, as follows :

‐>> Load Factor Limitation

‐>> Pitch Attitude Protection

‐>> High-Angle-Of-Attack (AOA) Protection

‐>>High-Speed Protection

->>Bank Angle Protection.

In addition to the above, a Low Energy Warning is also provided.

Q19. Mark it True or False..

..That when a/c is in Normal Law, computers will prevent excessive maneuvers and exceedance of the safe envelope in Pitch & Roll axis only. Rudder has no such protections.

A19. True.

Q20. Explain the Load Factor Protection?

A20. The Load Factor Protection limits the Load Factor to :-

(a) +2.5 g to -1 g for clean configuration.

(b) +2 g to 0 for other configurations.

Q21. Explain the Pitch Attitude protection?

A21. The Pitch Attitude Protection limits the Pitch Attitude to :-

(a) 30 ° nose up in conf 0 to 3 (progressively reduced to 25 ° at low speed).

(b) 25 ° nose up in conf FULL (progressively reduced to 20 ° at low speed).

(c) 15 ° nose down (indicated by green symbols “=” on the PFD’s pitch scale).

Q22. Explain the High Angle of Attack protection?

A22. The ∝ Protection system will prevent the pitch angle to develop into the stall area. The system also assist the pilots in a windshear situation. In pitch normal law, when the angle of attack becomes higher than the alpha prot threshold, the elevator control is switched to a protection mode where AOA is proportional to the side stick deflection.

When ∝ Floor is reached the Auto Thrust System will trigger and provide full take off power at both engines, regardless of the power lever position.

Q23. What happens when angle of attack becomes greater than α-Prot?

A23. Under normal law, when the angle-of-attack becomes greater than αprot, the system switches elevator control from normal mode to a protection mode, in which the angle-of-attack is proportional to sidestick deflection. That is, in the αprot range, from α prot to αMAX, the sidestick commands α directly. However, the angle-of-attack will not exceed αMAX, even if the pilot gently pulls the sidestick all the way back. If the pilot releases the sidestick, the angle-of-attack returns to αprot and stays there.

Q24. What is α-max?

A24. α-max is the maximum Angle Of Attack that the aircraft will achieve.

Q25. What is the High Speed protection when a/c is in Normal Law?

A25. High Speed Protection activates an automatic pitch up signal when the VMO or VMM limit is exceeded.

As the speed increases above VMO/MMO, the sidestick nose-down authority is progressively reduced, and a permanent nose-up order is applied to aid recovery to normal flight conditions. High Speed Protection is deactivated, when the aircraft speed decreases below VMO/MMO, where the usual normal control laws are recovered.

The autopilot disconnects, when High Speed Protection becomes active.

Q26. What are the protections available when a/c is in alternate pitch law?

A26. The following protections are available when a/c is in alternate pitch law :-

(a) Load Factor Limitation

(b) Low Speed Stability

(c) High Speed Stability

Q27. Are there any protections in Direct Law?

A27. Only Load Factor Protection is available in Direct Law.

Q28. What are the indications on PFD when a/c is in Direct Law?

A28. The PFD displays in Amber the message “USE MAN PITCH TRIM”.

Q29. What is the meaning of PFD displaying a message in red “MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY”?

A29. The ‘MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY’ indication on the PFD indicates that the SideStick is inoperative and the Pitch back up can be achieved through the use of manual THS.

Q30. If the flight controls degrade to alternate law, what will happen when the landing gear is extended (if no autopilots are engaged?)

A30. In pitch alternate law, the flight mode changes to the flare mode when the pilot selects landing gear down. The flare mode is a direct stick-to-elevator relationship.

Q31. Is automatic pitch trim available in alternate law?

A31. Yes.

Q32. Is hydraulics required to fly the aircraft in mechanical backup?

A32. Yes.

Q33. When both side sticks are operated simultaneously, is the sum of the side stick inputs limited to Normal law deflection limits?

A33. Yes.

Q34. What would result if both side sticks were moved at the same time during flight with the autopilot OFF?

A34. When the pilots move both side stick simultaneously in the same or opposite direction and neither takes priority, the system adds the signals of both pilots algebraically. The total is limited to the signal that would result from the maximum deflection of a single sidestick.

Q35. What are the indications when both side sticks are moved simultaneously?

A35. In the event of simultaneous input on both sidesticks the two green SIDE STICK PRIORITY lights on the glareshield come on and “DUAL INPUT” voice message is activated.

Q36. What is the meaning of SIDE STICK PRIORITY red arrow light?

A36. The Red Sidestick Priority Red Arrow Light comes on in front of the pilot losing authority.

Q37. How does the crew know whose side stick has priority?

A37. A green light comes on in front of the pilot who has taken control, if the other stick is not in the neutral position, also a “PRIORITY LEFT” or “PRIORITY RIGHT” audio voice message is given each time priority is taken.

Q38. If takeover p/b is pressed for more than 3 seconds, what are the indications in the cockpit?

A38. The following are the indications in the Cockpit :-

(a) Aural “PRIORITY LEFT” or “PRIORITY RIGHT” audio voice message is heard

(b) CAPT or F/O Red Arrow light comes on.

39. If takeover p/b is pressed for more than 40 seconds, what are the indications in the cockpit?

A39. In case the takeover P/b is pressed for more than 40 seconds, the priority condition is latched. The following are the indications in the Cockpit :-

(a) A red light comes on in front of the pilot whose stick is deactivated

(b) A green light comes on in front of the pilot who has taken control, if the other stick is not in the neutral position

(c) A “PRIORITY LEFT” or “PRIORITY RIGHT” audio voice message is given each time priority is taken.

Q40. If the takeoff configuration is 1+F and the pilot does not select configuration 0 after takeoff, what will happen?

A40. If the pilot does not select configuration 0 after takeoff, the flaps retract automatically at 210 kt.

Q41. On approach when Config 1 is selected, what flaps/slats combination is received?

A41. Configuration 1 (18 °/0 °) is selected.

Q42. Which computers control Slats operation?

A42. Two SFCC’s ( Slat Flap Control Computer ) control Slat operation.

Q43. Which computers control Flaps operation?

A43. Two SFCC’s ( Slat Flap Control Computer ) control Flap operation.

Q44. What do you understand by an ECAM of F/CTL SLATS FAULT?

A44. An ECAM of F/CTL SLATS FAULT indicates the failure of both slat channels.

Q45. What do you understand by an ECAM of F/CTL FLAPS FAULT?

A45. An ECAM of F/CTL FLAPS FAULT indicates the failure of both flap channels.

Q46. If one SFCC is lost, which of the flight controls are lost? What are the consequences of one SFCC failure?

A46. No flight controls are lost on failure of one SFCC. If one SFCC is inoperative, slats and flaps both operate at half speed.

Q47. Which dual Hydraulic system failure makes Flaps inoperative?

A47. A Dual Green+ Yellow system failure makes Flaps inoperative.

Q48. Which dual Hydraulic system failure makes Slats inoperative?

A48. A Dual Green+ Blue system failure makes Slats inoperative.

Q49. Can the rudder be manually trimmed with the autopilot engaged?

A49. No.

Q50. Is there any rudder pedal feedback for the yaw damping and turn coordination functions?

A50. No.

Q51. When will Wingtip Brakes get activated?

A51. Wingtip brakes (WTBs), are activated in case of asymmetry, mechanism overspeed, symmetrical runaway, or uncommanded movement of the surfaces.

Q52. If the WTBs lock the flap or slat surfaces and prevent further movement, can the remaining surfaces be extended?

A52. If the flap wingtip brakes are on, the pilot can still operate the slats, and if the slat wingtip brakes are on, he can still operate the flaps.

Q53. What is the indication, if wing tip brakes are applied in the flap system?

A53. The following are the indications if Wing Tip Brakes are applied in the Flap system :-

(a) The ‘F’ legend appears in Amber on the Slat/Flap position indicator on upper ECAM

(b) F LOCKED legend appears in Amber

(c) Flaps Actual Position becomes Amber on Upper ECAM

(d) F/CTL FLAPS LOCKED caution is generated.

Q54. What are the maximum winds for automatic approach, landing, and roll out?

A54. Maximum Winds for Automatic Approach, Landing and Roll Out :-

(a) Headwind : 30 knots

(b) Tailwind : 10 knots

(c) Crosswind : 20 knots

Q55. What would the FAULT light in the ELAC 1 pushbutton indicate?

A55. The FAULT Light comes on Amber for the following :-

(a) When a failure is detected

(b) During ELAC power up test (8 seconds)

Q56. How many ELAC computers do we have, and what are their functions?

A56. There are 2 ELAC computers on board the A320. The ELAC’s provide output to control the Elevators, the Ailerons and the THS.

Q57. How many SEC computers are installed and what are their functions?

A57. There are 3 SEC computers on board the A320. The SEC’s provide output control to the Spoilers and will be back-up for control of the Elevators and the THS.

Q58. Can the rudders be moved with both FACs inoperative?

A58. Yes

Q59. Which control surfaces are controlled by the FACs computers?

A59. Rudder.

Q60. What are the functions of FAC computer?

A60. The aircraft has two flight augmentation computers (FACs) that perform four main functions:

(a) Yaw function

i- Yaw damping and turn coordination

ii- Rudder trim

iii- Rudder travel limitation

(b) Flight envelope function

i- PFD speed scale management

-> Minimum/maximum speed computation

-> Maneuvering speed computation

ii- Alpha Floor Protection

(c) Low-Energy Warning function

(d) Windshear detection function

Q61. Which dual Hydraulic system failure makes THS inoperative?

A61. A Dual Green+ Yellow system failure makes the Stabiliser inoperative.

Q62. Which dual hydraulic failures do not affect the flight control laws and the aircraft remain in Normal Laws?

A62. A Dual Yellow+ Blue Hydraulic failure does not affect the Flight Control laws and the aircraft remains in Normal Law.

Q63. What is the warning if both L & R elevator Fault occurs in flight?

A63. On the ECAM, F/CTL L+R ELEV FAULT is generated.

On the PFD, “USE MAN PITCH TRIM” appears.

Q64. What happens to rudder limiter system if both FAC fail in flight?

A64. The Rudder Travel Limit System is lost.

Q65. When does ‘PITCH TRIM’ indication become amber on F/CTL page?

A65. It becomes amber, if the pitch trim jams.

Q66. What are the effects of Slats ALPHA SPEED lock function?

A66. This function inhibits slat retraction at high angles-of-attack and low speeds.

Q67. When does “ALPHA SPEED LOCK” appear?

A67. If alpha exceeds 8.5 ° or the airspeed goes below 148 kt, retraction from position 1 to position 0 is inhibited.

Q68. What happens to RUD TRIM selector and RESET p/b when AP is engaged?

A68. With the autopilot engaged, the FMGC computes the rudder trim orders. The rudder trim rotary switch and the rudder trim reset pushbutton are not active.

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4 thoughts on “FLIGHT CONTROLS”

  1. Q27) There are NO PROTECTIONS in Direct law!!!

    Q29) MAN PITCH TRIM ONLY is indicated in case of Mechanical Backup. It is not displayed in case of Sidestick Fault.

  2. Q no 27 & 29 needs a double check, and I’m afraid that Mr. Tenpenny is right.
    But great effort and dedication by team PAT!! for this valuable info.
    Cheers 🙂

  3. Excellent job guys. This has been really useful for my Command Interview. many Thanks for all your efforts

  4. Stylianidis pelopidas said:

    Very helpful!! Thanks PAT for all the info!!!
    Mr Tenpenny is right about Q27, Q29

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